This is a list of women who were Roman Empress , i. In the third century, Augustae could also receive the titles of Mater castrorum "mother of the castra " and Mater patriae "mother of the fatherland". Due to the practice of dividing the Roman empire under different emperors, there were periods when there were more than one Roman empress. All the Roman empresses are listed with some co-empresses. Not all empresses were titled Augusta , and not all Augustae were empresses since the emperor's sister or mistress could bear that title.
Ulpia Severina Following the downfall of the Severan dynasty the Rome Empire was plunged into a tumult of rival emperors and disasters known as the Crisis of the Third Century. Centuries ago, the most powerful man on earth committed a terrible crime on Smoking fetish picts islands. Livia Drusilla. Constantine VII. This is the diagnosis used in Robert Empegor ' Claudius novelsfirst published in the empetor. In literature, Claudius and his contemporaries appear in the historical novel The Roman by Mika Waltari. Cambridge: W. Roman emperor wife II of Lesbos Gattilusio. Petersen — e.
Roman emperor wife. Early life
Levick pp. He chided the senators about their reluctance to debate bills introduced by himself, as noted in the fragments of a surviving speech:. Alexios III. Claudius restored the status of the peaceful Imperial Roman provinces of Macedonia and Achaea as senatorial Roman emperor wife. Flavia Julia Constantia. Aelia Anastasia. Spring . The Roman people loved to speculate about the emperors and their sex lives. According to Vincent Scramuzza and others, Claudius began work on a history of the Civil Wars that was either too truthful or too critical of Octavian  —then reigning as Augustus Caesar. She then took a vow of perpetual virginity to avoid having to take a husband.
The 2,year-old sky-blue hololith has a face believed to be that of fourth wife Caesonia engraved into the bezel.
- The emperors of Rome could be wise, just and kind.
- The 2nd grade is called Nymphus bride.
- Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger , was likely implicated in Claudius' death and Nero's nomination as emperor.
- Livia, as history most often knows her, [] was the wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14 , an astonishingly long time in view of life expectancy in ancient Rome.
Born to Drusus and Antonia Minor at Lugdunum in Roman Gaulwhere his father was stationed as a military legate, he was the first Roman emperor to be born outside Italy. Claudius's infirmity probably saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius 's and Caligula's reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat. His survival led to his being declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last man of his family.
Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He expanded the imperial bureaucracy to include freedmen, and helped to restore the empire's finances after the excess of Caligula's reign.
He was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts, and canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire started its successful conquest of Britain. Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. He was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility.
Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position; this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. Many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife. After his death in 54 at the age of 63his grand-nephew, step-son, and adopted son Nero succeeded him as emperor.
His year reign slightly longer than Nero's would not be surpassed by any successors until that of Domitianwho reigned for 15 years. He was a step-grandson through his father Drusus and great-nephew through his mother Antonia Minor of Augustus.
He was a nephew of Tiberius through his father, Tiberius's Model number for blackberry curve. Through his brother GermanicusClaudius was an uncle of Caligula and a great uncle of Nero. Through Ciel hentai videos mother Antonia Minor he was a grandson of Mark Antony.
He had two older siblings, Germanicus and Livilla. His mother, Antonia, may have had two other children who died young. His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia MinorAugustus ' sister, and he was therefore the great-great grandnephew of Gaius Julius Caesar. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was actually the illegitimate son of Augustus, to give the appearance that Augustus was Claudius' paternal grandfather. Claudius was then left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried.
When Claudius' disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour. Antonia referred to him as a monster, and used him as a standard for stupidity. She seems to have passed her son off to his grandmother Livia for a number of years. Livia was a little kinder, but nevertheless often sent him short, angry letters of Roman emperor wife.
He was put under the care of a "former mule-driver"  to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness and a lack of will-power. However, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms apparently waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests.
He spent a lot of his time with the latter and the philosopher Athenodorus. Augustus, according to a letter, was surprised at the clarity of Claudius' oratory. His work as a budding historian damaged his prospects for advancement in public life. According to Vincent Scramuzza and others, Claudius began work on a history of the Civil Wars that was either too truthful or too critical of Octavian  —then reigning as Augustus Caesar.
In either case, it was far too early for such an account, and may have only served to remind Augustus that Claudius was Antony's descendant. His mother and grandmother quickly put a stop to it, and this may have convinced them that Claudius was not fit for public office.
He could not be trusted to toe the existing party line. When he returned to the narrative later in life, Claudius skipped over the wars of the Second Triumvirate altogether. But the damage was done, and his family pushed him into the background. Lesbian thumbnail gallaries the Arch of Pavia was erected to honor the Imperial clan in 8 AD, Claudius' name now Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus after his elevation to paterfamilias of Claudii Nerones on the adoption of his brother was inscribed on the edge—past the deceased princes, Gaius and Luciusand Germanicus' children.
There is some speculation that the inscription was added by Claudius himself decades later, and that he originally did not appear Ass hole satans all. Tiberius, the new Emperor, responded by granting Claudius consular ornaments.
Claudius requested office once more and was snubbed. Since the new Emperor was no more generous than the old, Claudius gave up hope of public office and retired to a scholarly, private life.
Despite the disdain of the Imperial family, it seems that from very early on the general public respected Claudius. At Augustus' death, the equitesor knights, chose Claudius to head their delegation. When his house burned down, the Senate demanded it be rebuilt at public expense. They also requested that Claudius be allowed to debate in the Senate. Tiberius turned down both motions, but the sentiment remained.
During the period immediately after the death of Tiberius' son, DrususClaudius was pushed by some quarters as a potential heir. This again suggests the political nature of his exclusion from public life.
However, as this was also the period during which the power and terror of the commander of the Praetorian GuardSejanuswas at its peak, Claudius chose to downplay this possibility. After the death of Tiberius, the new emperor Caligula the son of Claudius' brother Germanicus recognized Claudius to be of some use.
He appointed Claudius his co-consul in 37 in order to emphasize the memory of Caligula's deceased father Germanicus. Despite this, Caligula relentlessly tormented his uncle: playing practical jokes, charging him enormous sums of money, humiliating him before the Senate, and the like.
According to Cassius Dio Claudius became very sickly and thin by the end of Caligula's reign, most likely due to stress. On 24 January 41, Caligula was assassinated in a broad-based conspiracy involving the Praetorian commander Cassius Chaerea and several senators.
There is no evidence that Claudius had a direct hand in the assassinationalthough it has been argued that he knew about the plot—particularly since he left the scene of the crime Initiation for latin kings before his nephew was murdered.
In the chaos following the murder, Claudius witnessed the German guard cut down several uninvolved noblemen, including many of his friends. He fled to the palace to hide. According to tradition, a Praetorian named Gratus found him hiding behind a curtain and suddenly declared him princeps. They reassured him that they were not one of the battalions looking for revenge. He was spirited away to the Praetorian camp and put under their protection.
The Senate quickly met and began debating a change of government, but this eventually devolved into an argument over which of them would be the new princeps. When they heard of the Praetorians' claim, they demanded that Claudius be delivered to them for approval, but he refused, sensing the danger that would come with complying.
Some historians, particularly Roman emperor wife claim that Claudius was directed in his actions by the Judaean King Herod Agrippa. However, an earlier version of events by the same ancient author downplays Agrippa's role  so it remains uncertain. Eventually the Senate was forced to give in and, in return, Claudius pardoned nearly all the assassins.
Claudius took several steps to legitimize his rule against potential usurpers, most Brooke pussy them emphasizing his place within the Julio-Claudian family.
He adopted the name "Caesar" as a cognomenas the name still carried great weight with the populace. In order to do so, he dropped the cognomen "Nero" which he had adopted as paterfamilias of the Claudii Nerones when his brother Germanicus was adopted out.
While Claudius had never been formally adopted either by Augustus or his successors, he was nevertheless the grandson of Augustus' sister Octavia, and so he felt that he had the right of family. He also adopted the name "Augustus" as the two previous emperors had done at their accessions. He kept the honorific "Germanicus" to display the connection with his heroic brother. He deified his paternal grandmother Livia to highlight her position as wife of the divine Augustus. Claudius frequently used the term "filius Drusi" son of Drusus in his titles, in order to remind the people of his legendary father and lay claim to his reputation.
Since Claudius was the first Emperor proclaimed on the initiative of the Praetorian Guard instead of the Senate, his repute suffered at the hands of commentators such as Seneca.
Moreover, he was the first Emperor who resorted to bribery as a means to secure army loyalty and rewarded the soldiers of the Praetorian Guard that had elevated him with 15, sesterces. Claudius remained grateful to the guard, however, issuing coins with tributes to the Praetorians in the early part of his reign. Claudius restored the status of the peaceful Imperial Roman provinces of Macedonia and Achaea as senatorial provinces.
Under Claudius, the Empire underwent Cum pixie first major expansion since the reign of Augustus. The provinces of ThraceNoricumLyciaand Judea were annexed Tracy kalytiak put under direct rule under various circumstances during his term. The annexation of Mauretaniabegun under Caligula, was completed after the defeat of rebel forces, and the official division of the former client kingdom into two Imperial provinces.
In 43, Claudius sent Aulus Plautius with four legions to Britain Britannia after an appeal from an ousted tribal ally. It was also a haven for Gallic rebels and the like, and so could not be left alone much longer. Claudius himself traveled to the island after the completion of initial offensives, bringing with him reinforcements and elephants.
The latter must have made an impression Bank guarantee model the Britons when they were displayed in the large tribal centre of Camulodunummodern day Colchester. The Roman colonia of Colonia Claudia Victricensis was established as the provincial capital of the newly established province of Britannia at Camulodunum,  where a large Temple was dedicated in his honour. He left after 16 days, but remained in the provinces for some time.
The Senate granted him a triumph for his efforts. Only members of the Imperial family were allowed such honours, but Claudius subsequently lifted this restriction for some of his conquering generals.
He was granted the honorific "Britannicus" but only accepted it on behalf of his son, never using the title himself. When the British general Caractacus was captured in 50, Claudius granted him clemency. Caractacus lived out his days on land provided by the Roman state, an unusual end for an enemy commander.
Claudius conducted a census in 48 that found 5, Roman citizens  adult males with Roman citizenship ; women, children, slaves, and free adult males without Roman citizenship were not countedan increase of around a million since the census conducted at Augustus' death.
He had helped increase this number through the foundation of Roman colonies that were granted blanket citizenship. These colonies were often made out of existing communities, especially those with elites who could rally the populace to the Roman cause. Several colonies were placed in new provinces or on the border of the Empire to secure Roman holdings as quickly as possible. Claudius personally judged many of the legal cases tried during his reign. Ancient historians have many complaints about this, stating that his judgments were variable and sometimes did not follow the law.
Jan 03, · Sporus was then taken by Poppaea Sabina’s first husband, Otho, who became emperor of the Roman Empire. Now, there are many theories on why Sporus looked so much like the late empress, and one of them says that her father had had an affair with Sporus's qrpp-i.com: María Isabel Carrasco Cara Chards. Valeria Messalina ([waˈɫɛrja mɛssaːˈliːna], sometimes spelled Messallina; c. 17/20–48), was the third wife of the Roman emperor Claudius. She was a paternal cousin of Emperor Nero, a second cousin of Emperor Caligula, and a great-grandniece of Emperor qrpp-i.com: Marcus Valerius Messalla Barbatus. While not technically an Emperor, as wife of Claudius Messalina was an Empress, and she has the honor of having one of the earliest gangbangs in record history. And it was a contest, too!
Roman emperor wife. Did Nero commit incest with his mother?
Plotting with others and using her wealth she raised a rebellion which soon overthrew Macrinus. Retrieved 21 January Claudius did not want free-born magistrates to have to serve under him, as if they were not peers. Her weapon was poison, smeared on figs hanging in Augustus's garden. Agrippina and Claudius had become more combative in the months leading up to his death. Before that, for good measure, he tore out the man's eyes with his own hands. As a soldier he avoided dangerous fighting on the grounds he was feeling unwell. What gets Diocletian included here, however, is his utterly ruthless persecution of Christians. Rumours, even if ultimately untrue, helped to define the expectations of a good emperor in the minds of the readers. Milonia Caesonia. Irene Gattilusio. With time, however some thought that widowhood, a haughtiness and an overt craving for power and the outward trappings of status came increasingly to the fore [ citation needed ]. Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day.
Today the Tremiti Islands, off Italy's east coast, are a tourist destination. A handful of rocky outcrops they are surrounded by clear water.
She was a paternal cousin of Emperor Nero , a second cousin of Emperor Caligula , and a great-grandniece of Emperor Augustus. A powerful and influential woman with a reputation for promiscuity , she allegedly conspired against her husband and was executed on the discovery of the plot. Her notorious reputation arguably results from political bias, but works of art and literature have perpetuated it into modern times. Her mother's brother, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus , had been the first husband of the future Empress Agrippina the Younger and the biological father of the future Emperor Nero , making Nero Messalina's first cousin despite a seventeen-year age difference. Messalina's grandmothers Claudia Marcella and Antonia Major were half sisters. Antonia Major, Messalina's maternal grandmother, was the elder daughter of Octavia by her marriage to Mark Antony , and was Claudius' maternal aunt. There was, therefore, a large amount of inbreeding in the family. Little is known about Messalina's life prior to her marriage in 38 to Claudius , her first cousin once removed, who was then about 47 years old.